VIRMUNITY: Ingredients and Benefits

Vitamin C, 750mg (As ascorbic acid) (750mg)
Since the 1940s, numerous studies have suggested high doses of vitamin C both prevent and reduce the effects of the common cold. And, ever since Linus Pauling – a highly respected, two-time Nobel prize winner – advocated large doses of vitamin C in his 1970 bestseller, Vitamin C and the Common Cold, interest and research in vitamin C for treating colds and other viruses has flooded both consumers and clinical researchers. Vitamin C has demonstrated the ability to reduce the incidence, duration, and severity of the common cold.  Those that say otherwise should read the scientific literature. The effects of a Vitamin C regimen may be enhanced by the other ingredients in Virmunity.

Vitamin E, 215mg (as Alpha-Tocopheryl Succinate), Mixed Tocopherois
In clinical studies, Vitamin E supplementation significantly reduced the incidence rate of common colds and the number of patients who acquired a cold among elderly nursing home residents. Because of the high rate and more severe morbidity associated with common colds in this age group.  In other studies, Vitamin E produced a protective effect on upper respiratory tract infections, particularly the common cold.
Zinc, 30mg (As Zinc Citrate)
Zinc can inhibit rhinovirus replication and has activity against other respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, is a potential treatment for the common cold. The exact mechanism of zinc’s activity on viruses remains uncertain. Zinc may also reduce the severity of cold symptoms by acting as an astringent on the trigeminal nerve.
Selenium, 200mcg
Selenium is an essential micronutrient that plays a crucial role in development and a wide variety of physiological processes including effective immune responses. The immune system relies on adequate dietary selenium intake, for optimal immune function. Selenium is also an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, which protects cells from generating free radicals. Free radicals cause inflammation and are a critical component of the effects of viral replication. Selenium constitutes an integral part of at least 20 essential enzymes.
Low selenium status has been associated with increased risk of mortality and poor immune function. Selenium supplementation also has demonstrable antiviral effects.
In micronutrient deficient states, immune function may be improved by restoring micronutrients, such as selenium, thereby increasing resistance to infection and supporting faster recovery when infected.
N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC), 600mg
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a pharmaceutical drug and nutritional supplement derived from an amino acid known as L-cysteine. Doctors may recommend over the counter NAC to reduce the intensity of the common cold and related viral infectious diseases such as influenza. NAC can act as a precursor of reduced glutathione and as a direct reactive oxygen species scavenger, hence regulating the redox status in the cells, decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation, cardinal signs in viral infections.

NAC is primarily prescribed as a drug for the lungs and nasal passage to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases such as bronchitis and influenza-like conditions. It works as a cough medicine because of its ability to break the bonds in mucus, which makes it easier to cough them up (mucolytic). NAC also offers significant protection to cells, and supports the body's antioxidant systems during stress.

In observational studies, patients taking NAC were less likely to develop influenza, and in those infected, had less severe symptoms and shorter duration.  NAC had been shown to inhibit replication of seasonal human influenza A viruses. NAC inhibits H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Therefore, antioxidants like NAC represent a potential additional treatment option that could be considered in the case of an influenza A virus pandemic.

NAC has proved useful in the management of COPD reducing symptoms, exacerbations and accelerated lung function decline. It has been shown to inhibit influenza virus replication and to diminish the release of inflammatory and apoptotic mediators during virus infection.
Probiotics, 100mg
The human gut microbiota is an important environmental factor for human health with important roles in immunity, metabolism, development, and behavior. Probiotic organisms offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. In clinical trials, the consumption of probiotics significantly reduced the incidence of upper respiratory infection and flu-like symptoms. Patients that consumed probiotics demonstrated a significantly higher level of IFN-γ in the serum and sIgA in the gut as compared to the placebo group and a significant higher level of serum IFN-γ and gut sIgA as compared to their baseline test results. These are critical immune responses for the protection against viral infections. 
Results of this study demonstrated that probiotics were safe and effective for fighting the common cold and influenza-like respiratory infections by boosting the immune system. Probiotics have also demonstrated effectiveness in preventing upper respiratory tract infections. Probiotic prophylaxis (preventive treatment) reduced the number of participants who had one or more upper respiratory tract infections and the number of upper respiratory tract infections year. Use of probiotics also reduced antibiotic use. Probiotics have also demonstrated effectiveness in reducing circulating levels of Cytomegaloviras (CMV) and Epstein Barr virus (EBV), (a member of the herpes virus) family an effect that can be interpreted as a significant benefit to overall immune status.
Quercetin, 25mg
Many of our most powerful medicines, including those for diabetes, chemotherapy, and cardiovascular health, are derived from plant extracts. The plant flavonoid quercetin has attracted scientific interest for its ability to extend life span in laboratory models and protect against a wide range of health problems. Quercetinis a well-known antioxidant with antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. Reactive Oxygenated Species (ROS) produced during viral infection, are, however required for effective clearance of viruses and induce beneficial inflammation. Excessive production or persistently increased ROS generation may, however cause tissue damage. Administration of antioxidants, such as quercetin, may therefore attenuate oxidative damage and susceptibility to secondary viral or bacterial infection. Experiments suggest that quercetin not only scavenges free radicals to prevent tissue damage, but also decreases inflammatory markers such as IL-8, and exerts potent antiviral effects. Quercetin boosts the immune response to many common viruses and bacteria. That makes it especially important for older adults whose immunity declines, making them increasingly susceptible to dangerous infections.
Quercetin kills viruses in laboratory studies, In one study, quercetin inhibited influenza A virus replication in the laboratory more effectively than the anti-flu drug Tamiflu®.  In another study, quercetin inhibited hepatitis C virus replication. Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver failure and liver cancers.
In another study, quercetin blocked replication of the rhinovirus, the virus responsible for the common cold.  Adults who supplement with quercetin are significantly less likely to develop colds and upper respiratory tract infections following intensive exercise: in one study just 5% of supplemented subjects got sick, while 45% of control patients experienced colds.
In a population of middle-aged and older adults who were physically fit, 1,000 mg quercetin/day reduced the number of sick days taken for colds by 31%, and the severity of symptoms by 36%.  Quercetin is also effective against bacterial infections. It decreased the infection rate and inflammatory response to Helicobacter pylori, the cause of many ulcers and eventually cancers of the stomach.  Quercetin also reduced inflammatory responses and strengthened host defenses in experimental Salmonella infections, a major cause of death and disability, especially in older adults.
Citrus Bioflavanoids 25mg 
Bioflavonoids are biologically active members of the group of plant-derived compounds known as flavonoids. They were first discovered in 1936 by Nobel-prize winning scientist, Albert Szent-Gyorgi, who originally named them "Vitamin P." Bioflavonoids have antioxidant properties thought to be particularly beneficial for capillary strength, and immune function. Bioflavonoids from citrus fruits are believed to work with vitamin C to promote immune system health Bioflavonoids are used as an aid to enhance the action of vitamin C, to support blood circulation, as antioxidants, and to treat allergies, viruses, or arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.